Chapter – 1 Examination Policy and Rules for Constituent Units Following Semester System
- Examination Timetable
- Paper Setters and Examiners
- Seating Plan
- Nomination of Invigilators
- Persons Authorized for Examination Hall
- Preparation of Question Paper
- Answer Script Book (s)
- Conduct of Examinations
- Submission of Results by the Examiners
- Compilation and Promulgation of Results
- Re-evaluation and Re-checking of Papers
- Preparation and Issuance of Transcripts
- Degree Supplementary Form (DSF)
- Preparation and Issuance of Degree
- Examination Rules / Regulation for Engineering Courses
- Instructions regarding Calculators/Answer Scripts Books (s)
- Examination (Taking Unscheduled Examinations)
Chapter – 2 Examination Policy for Constituent and Affiliated Medical Institutions
2.3 Professional MBBS Examinations
2.3.1 First Professional MBBS Part – I Examination
2.3.2 First Professional MBBS Part – II Examination
2.3.3 Second Professional MBBS Examination
2.3.4 Third Professional MBBS Examination
2.3.5 Final Professional MBBS Examination
2.4 Curriculum of MBBS
2.5 Curriculum of BDS
Chapter – 3 Academic Dishonesty – Student’s Guide
3.3 Academic Dishonesty Today
3.4 Types of Academic Dishonesty
3.4.6 Professional misconduct
Chapter – 4 Academic Dishonesty – Teacher’s Guide
4.1 Preventing Academic Dishonesty
4.2 General Strategies
4.2.1 Spend time at the beginning of the term discussing standards
of academic scholarship and conduct
4.2.2 Make sure students know the criteria for evaluating
4.2.3 Develop a climate and group norms that support honesty
4.2.4 Learn to recognize signs of stress in students
4.2.5 Ensure equal access to study materials
4.2.6 Make students feel as though they can succeed in your class
without having to resort to dishonesty
4.2.7 If you suspect students of cheating or plagiarizing material,
confront them directly.
4.3.1 Clarify the distinctions between plagiarism, hrasing,
and direct citation
4.3.2 Watch out for electronic plagiarism
4.3.3 Tell students that resubmitting their previous ademic
work as a new product for your courseis inappropriate
4.4 Paper Topics
4.4.1 Assign specific topics
4.4.2 Limit students' choices of broad paper topics
4.4.3 Change the assignments for each offering of a course
4.5 Writing Demystified
4.5.1 Give a short lecture on how to research and write a paper
4.5.2 Discuss in class the techniques of writing
4.5.3 During the term, schedule a variety of short in-class papers
4.5.4 Early in the course, require students to come in to discuss
their paper topics
4.6 Preparation and Submission of Papers
4.6.1 Require students to submit first drafts.
4.6.2 Request that final versions of papers be handed in with drafts
4.6.3 If possible, collect papers from students during class
4.6.4 Consult the catalogue descriptions of term paper firms
4.7 Exam Questions
4.7.1 Change exam questions as often as is practical
4.7.2 For multiple-choice exams, use alternate forms
4.7.3 Create individualized tests for students, if appropriate
4.7.4 Keep exams, grade books, and rosters safe
4.8 Test Administration
4.8.1 Make certain that you (or proctors) are in the room at all
4.8.2 Seat students randomly in alternate chairs.
4.8.3 In large classes, check students' photo IDs.
4.8.4 In rooms with seat numbers, keep a seating chart
4.8.5 Make certain that students have cleared the memories on their
4.8.6 Supply scratch paper
4.8.7 Take action if you observe "wandering eyes"
4.8.8 Spend some time in the back of the room
4.8.9 Do not allow students to rush chaotically at the end of the
4.9 Scoring and Returning of Exams
4.9.1 Clearly mark incorrect answers
4.9.2 If you permit regarding of exams, take precautions
4.10 Fraudulent Excuses
4.10.1 Distinguish between fraudulent, legitimate, and unacceptable
4.10.2 Clearly state your policies about accepting excuses
4.10.3 Recognize that the excuse "my grandmother died" is more
likely to be valid than fraudulent
CHAPTER – 1
1. EXAMINATION POLICY AND RULES FOR CONSTITUENT UNITS FOLLOWING SEMESTER SYSTEM
1.1 Examination Timetable:
The Head of Departments (HODs) will prepare the Examinations Timetable of their respective relevant disciplines at least three weeks before the commencement of Examination. The HODs have to make sure that Faculty Members have informed the students regarding the their internal academic assessment (Quizzes, Assignments, Midterm) before appearing attempting in the final examination. A recommended time table is to be forwarded to Director Examinations for approval.
1.2 Paper Setters and Examiners:HODs of respective disciplines shall nominate paper setters and examiners in theory and practical for the courses pertaining to their departments. A paper setter shall normally be expected and required to assess the answer sheets of the paper set by him/her. If he declines to do so, or is not available, then concerned HOD shall appoint another examiner. Further instructions on the issue are appended below:
No person shall be suggested as a paper setter or examiner against whose work, at a previous examinations, there has been an adverse report.
- No person shall be appointed as Paper Setter whose close relative (Wife, husband, son, daughter, adopted son, adopted daughter, grand-son, grand-daughter, full and half brother and sister, niece/nephew, brother and sister in law, son and daughter in law, paternal and maternal uncle and aunt etc.) is appearing in the examination. A Paper Setter shall decline the appointment if he/she has been appointed inadvertently.
1.3 Seating Plan:
All students will be given CMS (Campus Management System) generated slips showing date, time, and examination hall/venue of each candidate for his/her respective paper. Students seating plan is to be designed in such a manner that students of the same class do not sit adjacent to each other.
1.4 Nomination of Invigilators:The Examination Cell of the campuses will nominate invigilators. The classroom/examination hall of 30 students must have two invigilators. More invigilators should be appointed for bigger classrooms or examination halls having more than 30 students. Examination Cell shall appoint at least five standby invigilators to meet any emergency.
1.5 Persons Authorized for Examination Hall:
Personnel authorized by the Campus as well as Examinations Department and other Competent Authorities are authorized to enter examination halls/venues.
1.6 Preparation of Question Paper:
- The subject teacher will set the question paper. A standard format will be provided by the relevant Department/DD Academics to the paper setters.
- If Multiple Choice Questions (MCQs) are part of question paper, then either the MCQs shall be solved on the questions paper that should be taken back after the time limit specified for MCQs ends or MCQs may be solved on a separate answer sheet that shall be taken back from the students after prescribed time limit.
- After setting the paper, the question paper must be shown to the HOD or the subject expert (designated by HOD). HOD/subject expert has to make sure that the question paper is in accordance with the specified format, curriculum outline, and appropriate weightage is given to topics covered.
- HODs are to ensure that all faculty members provide certificate to the effectthat course contents of their respective subjects have been covered 100% before final examination. Sample certificate is given at Annex ‘A’.
- The paper setter will take the question paper to Examination Cell (i.e the DD Academics Office) where he/she will make copies as per class strength. After copying and stapling, the paper setter will enclose and seal the question papers into envelopes in accordance with the seating plan. The paper setter will deliver these sealed and signed envelopes to the DD Academics in the Examination Cell, who shall act as a custodian of the question papers. The Examination Cell will then sort and shift these sealed packets to their relevant room-wise envelopes. DD Academics will make sure that the envelopes have been sealed and locked in a secure place.
1.7 Answer Script:
All constituent units will use the answer script as per layout depicted at Annex ‘B’.
1.8 Conduct of Examinations:
a. Undertaking from new students:
All new entrants will be required to submit an undertaking on stamp paper, duly signed by an Oath Commissioner as per sample placed at Annex ‘C’. The said undertaking must be complied by the students appearing in the examinations.
b. Distribution of answer scripts and question papers:
- The Examination Cell staff will be responsible for the distribution of answer sheets and question papers among invigilators(Hall/Room-wise sealed in large envelopes containing subject-wise sealed envelopes of question papers).
- At the time of opening the packet (containing question papers), the invigilator will sign a declaration that papers have been received duly sealed. This declaration will be deposited by the respective invigilator to the Examination Cells of the respective campuses.
- After the examination time is over, the invigilators will seal the answer scripts subject /class wise in the envelopes and deliver it to the Examination Cell Incharge.
- The examiners will collect the sealed envelopes from the Examination Cell and make sure that the number of answer scripts given to them conforms to the Examination Cell’s receipt register. Examination Cell will also provide blank award list to the Examiners, printed through CMS.
c. Instructions for invigilators in Exam Hall:
Invigilators are to ensure that the examination is being conducted in a fair manner and as per policy guidelines. Students using any unfair means (talking to each other or using cheating material) must be stopped and the matter should be reported to the HOD immediately. Subsequently the case shall be forwarded to the Examination Committee on the prescribed form along with the any material if recovered from the student.
1.9 Submission of Results by the Examiners:
- After assessing the answer scripts, the examiner shall submit the assessed answer sheets along with award list showing marks on the prescribed sheet provided to examiner by the Examination Cell.
- Midterm results along with answer scripts shall be submitted to the Examination Cell within two weeks of Midterm Examination after discussing the result with HOD and showing the marked answer sheets to students.
- The final Examination result along with the marked answer scripts must be submitted by the examiner to Examination Cell within 72 hours of the conduct ofthe examination.
- Compilation and Promulgation of Results:
- Results will be entered in the CMS by the Examination Cell data entry operator in the presence of the examiner and a hard copy of the award list is to be printed through the system.
- The hard copy of the award list is to be signed by the concerned examiner, HOD and DDA and forwarded to the Bahria University Examinations Department.
- BU Examination Department will process result compilation on receipt of all the award lists. Data will be shifted to Exam Database and Single Course Report (SCR) will be generated. Each SCR will be checked and verified by the Examination Department with the corresponding signed hard copy of the award list and to be filled in the respective folders for record and future reference.
- Upon receipt of complete result i.e the last award list, the University’s Examination Department will print Provisional Semester Result Notification (PSRN) within seven working days. Detail SOP for Result Promulgation is at Annex ‘E’
- Remarks generated in the PSRN in respect of each student are to be cross verified by displaying transcript through the Examination Software.
- After thorough verification and correction, the PSRN will be signed by Deputy Director Examinations and forwarded to the respective campuses. PSRN will not be displayed. The students will access their results through internet by using their individual IDs.
- Result may also be communicated to students by the concerned faculty/HOD or Exam cell.
- Respective campuses are to report error/ deficiency, if any, in the PSRN within 10 working days of the receipt of PSRN.
- The students may apply for re-totaling of marks with in a week.
- It is mandatory for all students to get their user ID and Password from respective system administrators. System administrators shall be responsible to maintain confidentiality of the password. Students may request system administrator to change their password from time to time for the purpose of security. Campuses may provide the student’s IDs to their parents for viewing/accessing the results of their children.
1.11 Re-evaluation and Re-checking of Papers:
a. Re-evaluation is not allowed under any circumstances and the paper will never be sent to the examiner again.
b. Only re-checking is allowed which means to check the paper for numerical mistakes or omissions against a fee of Rs. 500/-. The relevant teacher/examiner shall be consulted for rechecking of assignment and quizzes marks.
c. Re-checking Forms will be made available with Examination Cell.
d. Re-checking and Re-totaling are to be considered as same.
1.12 Preparation and Issuance of Transcripts:
a. Examination Department will issue two types of Transcripts i.e Interim and Final. Transcripts shall be issued to the students upon submission of a request as per SOP at Annex ‘F’ . The form must be signed by the account office (for clearance of outstanding dues) and DDA before submitting to the Examination Department.
b. Examination Department will issue the transcript within 7 working days of the receipt of the application form.
c. Interim Transcript: Interim Transcript will be issued to those students who have not completed their program. It will show the grades of all semesters which a student has completed along with GPA/CGPA. It will show ‘Program Incomplete’ status.
d. Final Transcript: Final Transcript will be issued to the students who have completed their degree requirements. It will show complete academic record of the students along with GPA/CGPA and ‘Program Completed’ status with Academic Honor (Cum Laude etc), if applicable.
e. Duplicate Transcripts: The University shall issue one original copy of the Interim and Final Transcripts. Students may request additional copies on payment of prescribed fee.
f. Each type of transcript will depict transcripts definition and legend on its reverse side. Sample of transcript with detail instructions on reverse side is placed at Annex ‘G’
1.13 Degree Supplementary Form (DSF):
- This form will be another document issued to the students in addition to their Transcripts and Degrees. It will provide a description of the nature, level, context, content and status of the studies that were pursued and successfully completed by the student. In case, the desired information on DSF is already available on transcript/degrees, the relevant portion on DSF will carry remarks “As depicted on transcript”. A sample of DSF is placed at Annex ‘H’.
- The DSF will be issued to the students by the Examination Department on completion of their degree requirement.
- Students will be required to submit DSF application form to respective DDA’s offices. Sample application form is placed at Annex ‘I’
- A prescribed fee will be charged for issuing the DSF.
1.14 Preparation and Issuance of Degrees:
The process of preparation of Gazette Notification and signing of the degrees may take two to three months once degree request form is received at the Examinations Department from the Examinations Cell of the Campuses.
1.15 Examination Rules / Regulation for Engineering Courses:
As per Pakistan Engineering Council’s requirement, the course folder for each course is required to be maintained. In each course folder, besides other things, the copies of the three examination papers (best, middle and worst) are to be placed.
The policy of Pakistan Engineering Councils further depicts that the marks distribution scheme for the faculty of engineering sciences w.e.f Fall 2010 will be as follow:
- Degrees will be prepared after issuance of Gazette Notification by the Director Examination in respect of the students who have completed all the degree requirements.
- Registrar office will issue blank degrees to the Examination Department for printing after receipt of the Gazette Notification.
- Examination Department will print, verify and then return the degrees to the Degree Section of the Registrar Office.
- Degree Section will submit the degrees to the Registrar for his signature after thorough checking. Registrar will submit the degrees to the Rector for his signature.
- Students will be awarded degrees in convocation. Degrees in absentia can also be collected personally by the students in case they could not attend the convocation ceremony.
In case no convocation is held in a particular year, the students may get their degrees either from the office of the Registrar or from the respective Campuses as applicable.
a. For the courses without labs: (Assessment based on 100 Marks)
20 Marks for the Midterm Examination
30 Marks for the Sessional Work
50 Marks for the Final Examination
b. For the courses with lab work: (Assessment of Theory Examination is based on
100 Marks and Lab work on 50 Marks).
For the theory (Marks distribution is similar as at (a)
For Lab. work the marking policy is attached at Annex ‘M’:
- The two components i.e. Theory and Practical will be considered as two separate components. Only that component will require to be repeated in which a student is failed. For the first time, both components are mandatory to register. Failing in Theory will not enable the student to take a course in sequence in the next higher semester.
1.16 Instructions regarding Calculators/Answer Scripts:
On the Envelop (in which examination papers are sealed), the following should be written:
Calculators: Allowed Not Allowed
Answer Scripts: Provided Not Provided
If answers are to be written on the Question papers
1.17 Examination (Taking Unscheduled Examinations)
As per the decision of 13th Academic Council Meeting following was decided:
- Re-take/Re-scheduling of midterm and final Examinations is not be allowed. However, cases may be entertained by the Director Campuses in special circumstances of severe illness (with an illness certificate) or death of immediate family members with a death certificate of the family member), if proved beyond any doubt for their genuineness. Records are to be maintained. Rector to be informed also.
- If permitted by the Director Campuses on genuine grounds as above, all such papers should be conducted on any prescribed date within one week after the Examinations positively (with proper invigilation arrangements). In addition, the question paper will not be the same (i.e. not he previous one), and should be completely different. However, the number of the questions and the quality of the question paper should be the same. All such cases ought to be given in one day, following one-sit rule). The number and the question paper should be the same (as in the pervious one).
- Students allowed for re-take should be charged extra fee of Rs. 3,000/- per paper.
- Re-take papers (Midterm of Final) are to be conducted only in the designated class rooms and under strict supervision of the nominated invigilators.
- The permission for the re-take Examinations would be sought from the Director Campus.
No relegation for students in the semester / annual system is enforced at Bahria University. However relegation at Pakistan Naval Academy and Pakistan School of Logistics (Constituent Units) would be governed by the service rules of Pakistan Navy.
A Faculty member to be appointed by the Head of the Department for guiding and counseling students and for supervising their academic performance till their graduation.
An “academic program” means a program of studies prescribed for a certain degree of the University.
A “Credit Course” means a course of study, successful completion of which shall be a requirement for earning a degree.
The unit measuring educational credit, usually consisting of one contact hour per week for sixteen weeks. For practical work (other than Engineering program), 2 contact hours per week for 16 weeks will be equal to one credit hour of theory. For Engineering program 3 contact hours per week for 16 weeks will equal one credit hour of theory.
The last comprehensive examination of any subject conducted on completion of semester / prescribed duration.
Semester Full Load:
All courses taken as per prescribed roadmap of the semester of a particular degree program.
An alphabetic letter depicting the academic performance of the student in their meanings defined in these rules.
Numerical value assigned to each letter grade as defined in these rules.
Grade Point Average (GPA):
The summation of the multiple of grade points and corresponding credit hours of all credit courses divided by the total number of credit hours taken by a student during a semester.
Cumulative Grade Point Average (CGPA):
The summation of multiple of grade points and corresponding credit hours of all credit courses divided by the total number of credit hours taken by a student beginning from his admission till the last examination held.
A list of all students who have achieved CGPA >= 3.5 in a semester examination.
A Non-credit Course is a course of study, which is required for a completion of a degree but does not account for CGPA.
A course that a student must complete before being registered to another course.
A “Semester” is an academic period, in which one set of courses in each discipline is offered.
A student is a person who has registered for a certain number of courses in a regular degree programme or a short course offered by the University.
Subject or Course:
A “Subject” or “Course” means a topic or a subject related to an academic program, which is to be studied by a student for a fixed number of hours during a semester. Each subject will carry a specific number and code.
An official copy of a student’s academic record produced by the office of Director Examination
CHAPTER – 2
2. EXAMINATION POLICY FOR CONSTITUENT AND AFFILIATED MEDICAL INSTITUTIONS
This policy has been prepared in accordance with the latest instructions received from Pakistan Medical and Dental Council (PM&DC). Any changes / amendments in this policy would be made as per instructions received from PM&DC from time to time.
Evaluation is an essential part of the education process. There should be regular internal evaluations. The students should be evaluated in all 3 domains – cognitive, affective and psychomotor. The principles of internal evaluations should be uniformly applied by all medical colleges.
The purpose of evaluation should be:
a. To give feed back to the students about their understanding of the course material.
This purpose can be achieved by regular internal evaluation of each assignment or course.
b. To certify that the students have successfully completed the training and have achieved the objectives of the educational program.
c.. To determine the success of the teaching program.
d. To motivate and encourage students to direct their own learning.
In order to achieve the objectives it is mandatory to adopt the following processes:
a. Continuous internal assessment consists of appropriate evaluation at the end of each assignment, term, stage or course of the curriculum. Proper records of internal evaluations should be maintained, and the scores obtained in these tests should contribute 30% to the final total score of the candidates. Final university examinations should contribute 70% to the total score, and the students should secure passing marks on the aggregate of the total marks.
b. Whatever may be the system of marking, for all examinations throughout the medical course the percentage of pass marks in each subject should not be less than 50 – i.e. 50% in practical.
c. The first professional examination should be divided into two parts, each to be conducted by the university. Any students who fails to pass the first professional MBBS Part-I and Part-II examination in three chances or does not avail the chances despite being eligible for each examination shall cease to pursue further medical education in Pakistan.
d. No student can be promoted to the higher classes unless he/she passes all the subjects of the previous classes.
e. No student should be eligible for a university examination without having attended 75% of the lectures, demonstrations, tutorials, and practical or clinical work both in patients and outpatients.
f. No student shall be promoted to the 3rd year of MBBS class without passing the First Professional MBBS Part-1 and Part -2 university examination in Anatomy, Physiology and Biochemistry.
g. No grace mark should be allowed in any examination.
h. There should be no more than two professional university examinations in a year.
j. The performance of candidates in all evaluations and examinations should be carefully supervised.
k. Maximum number of eligible examiners from amongst the teachers may be involved in the internal evaluation examinations.
l. Written examinations should consist of MCQs, short structured essays, extended essays etc.
m. Clinical and practical examinations should include standardized multiple station examinations whenever appropriate.
n. The final MBBS examination in Medicine, Surgery, Obstetric & Gynecology, Pediatrics, Ophthalmology and ENT should not be further sub-divided.
p. The clinical examination in Medicine, Surgery, Obstetric and Gynecology, Pediatrics, Ophthalmology and ENT should be held in adequately equipped hospitals.
q. In all professional examinations, sufficient time should be assigned to practical work to test the thoroughness of the candidate’s knowledge and practical skills.
r. At least three academic years should intervene between the dates of passing the first professional examination and the final professional examination.
s. The final professional examination is not to be taken before the close of the fifth academic year of medical students.
t. External examiners should always be associated with local or internal examiners for written, oral and practical parts of university examinations.
u. Examiners for all subjects should be appointed from the approved list of examiners by the Council. The number of external examiners and internal examiners shall be equal. External examiners should not be appointed for more than three consecutive years. The number of internal and external examiners should at least be one for a group of 100(One Hundred) students.
v. The internal examiner for various subject should be Professor and Head of Department who have been involved in teaching of the class being examined for at least six months and have delivered 50% of the total lectures. Second preference is Associate Professor/Assistant Professor who is involved in teaching of the class and posted there for one year. Third preference is a recognized professor of the subject. External Examiner should also be a Professor or Associate Professor of a recognized medical college or at least an Assistant Professor with three years teaching experience in the relevant subject.
w. Preparatory leave should not exceed one month in the first, second and third professional examination.
x. The gap between two consecutive papers should not be more than two days.
y. The result of each examination should be declared within one month of the last practicl examination.
2.3 Professional MBBS Examinations:
2.3.1 First Professional MBBS Part – I Examination:
To be held at the end of the 1st year in the following subjects in course work completed in the first year.
- Anatomy and Histology
One Paper: 100 Marks
Practical and Oral Exam: 100 Marks
One Paper: 100 Marks
Practical and Oral Exam: 100 Marks
One Paper: 50 Marks
Practical and Oral Exam: 50 Marks
2.3.2 First Professional MBBS Part – II Examination:
To be held at the end of the 2nd year in the following subjects in course work completed in the second year:
Any student who fails to clear the first Professional MBBS Part – I examinations in three chances availed or un-availed after becoming eligible for each examination shall cease to become eligible for further medical education in Pakistan.
- Anatomy and Histology
One Paper: 100 Marks
Practical and Oral Exam: 100 Marks
One Paper: 100 Marks
Practical and Oral Exam : 100 Marks
One Paper: 50 Marks
Practical and Oral Exam: 50 Marks
Any student who fails to clear the first Professional MBBS Part – II examinations in three chances availed or un-availed after becoming eligible for each examination shall cease to become eligible for further medical education in Pakistan.
2.3.3 2nd Professional MBBS Examination:
To be held at the end of the 3rd year in the following subjects:
- Pharmacology & Therapeutics
One paper, Practical and Oral Exam: 300 Marks
- Pathology General, Microbiology &
One Paper Practical and Oral Exam: 300 Marks
- Forensic Medicine
One Paper, Practical and Oral Exam: 200 Marks
- The clinical skills in all subjects shall be taught and evaluated in third year. It should be part of internal evaluation having proportionate weightage according to the number of marks allotted to each subject. The methodology of evaluation to be developed by the institution.
2.3.4 3rd Professional Examination:
To be held at the end of the 4th year in the following subjects:
- Community Medicine
One paper, Practical and Oral Exam: 300 Marks
- Special Pathology
One Paper, Practical & oral Examination: 300 Marks
2.3.5 Final Professional MBBS Examination:
To be held at the end of the 5th year in the following subjects:
- Medicine including Psychiatry
Two Papers, Practical and Oral Exam: 600 Marks
- Surgery including Orthopaedics
Two Papers, Practical and Oral Exam: 600 Marks
- Obstetrics and Gynaecology
Two Papers, Practical and Oral Exam: 400 Marks
- Paediatrics including Neonatology
One Paper, Practical and Oral Exam: 200 Marks
- Otorhinolaryngology (ENT)
One Paper, Practical and Oral Exam: 200 Marks
One Paper, Practical and Oral Exam: 200 Marks
N.B. (An SOP related to the conduct of examination at affiliated units is placed at Annex ‘J’)
2.4.1 Curriculum of MBBS:
2.5. Curriculum of BDS:
CHAPTER – 3
3. ACADEMIC DISHONESTY STUDENT’S GUIDE (EXPLANATION FROM WIKIPEDIA, THE FREE ENCYCLOPEDIA)
Academic dishonesty or academic misconduct is any type of cheating that occurs in relation to a formal academic exercise. It can include:
- Plagiarism: The adoption or reproduction of ideas or words or statements of another person without due acknowledgment.
- Fabrication: The falsification of data, information, or citations in any formal academic exercise.
- Deception: Providing false information to an instructor concerning a formal academic exercise—e.g., giving a false excuse for missing a deadline or falsely claiming to have submitted work.
- Cheating: Any attempt to give or obtain assistance in a formal academic exercise (like an examination) without due acknowledgment.
- Sabotage: Acting to prevent others from completing their work. This includes cutting pages out of library books or willfully disrupting the experiments of others.
- Professorial misconduct: Professorial acts that are academically fraudulent equate to academic fraud.
Academic dishonesty has been documented in almost every type of educational setting, from elementary school to graduate school, and has been met with varying degrees of approbation throughout history. Today, educated society tends to take a very negative view of academic dishonesty.
In antiquity, the notion of intellectual property did not exist. Ideas were the common property of the literate elite. Books were published by hand-copying them. Scholars freely made digests or commentaries on other works, which could contain as much or as little original material as the author desired. There was no standard system of citation, because printing—and its resulting fixed pagination—was in the future. In effect, scholars were an elite and a small one, who knew and generally trusted each other. This system continued through the European Middle Ages. Education was in Latin and occasionally Greek. Some scholars were monks, lived in monasteries, and spent much of their time copying manuscripts. Other scholars were in urban universities connected to the Roman Catholic Church.
Academic dishonesty dates back to the first tests. Scholars note that cheating was prevalent on the Chinese civil service exams thousands of years ago, even when cheating carried the penalty of death for both examinee and examiner. Before the founding of the Modern Language Association (MLA) and the American Psychological Association (APA) at end of the 19th century, there were no set rules on how to properly cite quotations from others' writings, which may have caused many cases of plagiarism out of ignorance.
In the late 1800s and early 1900s, cheating was widespread at college campuses in the United States, and was not considered dishonorable among students. It has been estimated that as many as two-thirds of students cheated at some point of their college careers at the turn of the 20th century. Fraternities often operated so-called essay mills, where term papers were kept on file and could be resubmitted over and over again by different students, often with the only change being the name on the paper. As higher education trended towards meritocracy, however, a greater emphasis was put on anti-cheating policies, and the newly diverse student bodies tended to arrive with a more negative view of academic dishonesty.
3.3 Academic Dishonesty Today:
Academic dishonesty is endemic in all levels of education. The studies show that 20% of students started cheating in the first grade; similarly other studies reveal that currently 56% of middle school students and 70% of high school students have cheated.
Students are not the only ones to cheat in an academic setting. A study of teachers further revealed that some 35 percent of respondents said they had witnessed their colleagues cheating in one form or another. The rise of high-stakes testing and the consequences of the results on the teacher is cited as a reason why a teacher might want to inflate the results of their students.
The first scholarly studies in the 1960s of academic dishonesty in higher education found that somewhere between 50%-70% of college students had cheated in institutions, depending on the size, selectivity, and anti-cheating policies. Generally, the smaller and more selective the institutions, the less cheating occurs there. As for graduate education, a recent study in USA found that 56% of MBA students admitted cheating, along with 54% of graduate students in engineering, 48% in education, and 45% in law.
3.4 Types of Academic Dishonesty:
Plagiarism is the adoption or reproduction of the ideas or words or statements of another person without due acknowledgment. This can range from borrowing without attribution a particularly apt phrase, to paraphrasing someone else's original idea without citation, to wholesale contract cheating. When plagiarizing, students will often turn to the Internet, due the ease of copying and pasting from websites. Other more old fashioned forms of plagiarism such as paper mills and passing off obscure articles or chapters of books of others as original work also still occur. Plagiarized papers are often riddled with gross inconsistencies such as referencing non-existent sections of the essay, changes in spelling and grammar customs, or the argument changing in mid-paragraph.
Fabrication is the falsification of data, information, or citations in any formal academic exercise. This includes making up citations to back up arguments or inventing quotations. Fabrication predominates in the natural sciences, where students sometimes fudge numbers to make experiments "work". It includes data falsification, in which false claims are made about research performed, including selective submitting of results to exclude inconvenient data to generating bogus data.
Bibliographical references are often fabricated, especially when a certain minimum number of references is required or considered sufficient for the particular kind of paper. This type of fabrication can range from referring to works whose titles look relevant but which the student did not read, to making up bogus titles and authors.
Deception is providing false information to a teacher/instructor concerning a formal academic exercise. Examples of this include taking more time on a take-home test than is allowed, giving a dishonest excuse when asking for a deadline extension, or falsely claiming to have submitted work. This type of academic misconduct is often considered softer than the more obvious forms of cheating, and otherwise-honest students sometimes engage in this type of dishonesty without considering themselves cheaters. It is also sometimes done by students who have failed to complete an assignment, to avoid responsibility for doing so.
Sabotage is when a student prevents others from completing their work. This includes cutting pages out of library books or willfully disrupting the experiments of others. Sabotage is usually only found in highly competitive, cutthroat environments, such as at extremely elite schools where class rankings are highly prized.
Some medical-school librarians have noted that important articles—required reading for key courses—are frequently missing from bound journals—sliced out with razor blades, scalpels, or other sharp blades. Other journals will be marked up in crayon.
The use of crib notes during an examination is typically viewed as cheating. Cheating can take the form of crib notes, looking over someone's shoulder during an exam, or any forbidden sharing of information between students regarding an exam or exercise. Many elaborate methods of cheating have been developed over the years. For instance, students have been documented hiding notes in the bathroom toilet tank, in the brims of their baseball caps, or up their sleeves. Also, the storing of information in graphing calculators, pagers, cell phones, and other electronic devices has cropped up since the information revolution began. While students have long surreptitiously scanned the tests of those seated near them, some students actively try to aid those who are trying to cheat. Methods of secretly signaling the right answer to friends are quite varied, ranging from coded sneezes or pencil tapping to high-pitched noises beyond the hearing range of most teachers. Some students have been known to use more elaborate means, such as using a system of repetitive body signals like hand movements or foot jerking to distribute answers (i.e. where a tap of the foot could correspond to answer "A", two taps for answer "B", and so on).
Cheating differs from most other forms of academic dishonesty, in that people can engage in it without benefiting themselves academically at all. For example, a student who illicitly telegraphed answers to a friend during a test would be cheating, even though the student's own work is in no way affected. Another example of academic dishonesty is a dialogue between students in the same class but in two different time periods, both of which a test is scheduled for that day. If the student in the earlier time period informs the other student in the later period about the test; that is considered academic dishonesty, even though the first student has not benefited himself. This form of cheating—though deprecated—could conceivably be called altruistic.
Professorial misconduct includes improper grading of students' papers and oral exams, deliberate negligence towards cheating or assistance in cheating. This can be done for reasons of personal bias towards students (favoritism), for a bribe, or to improve the teacher's own perceived performance by increasing the passing rate.
N.B The causes for a student to indulge in an Academic Dishonesty e.g. Demographics, Contextual, Ethical, Personal, Faculty etc have not been deliberated upon.
There are a variety of causes of academic misconduct. Researchers have studied the correlation of cheating to personal characteristics, demographics, contextual factors, methods of deterring misconduct, even stages of moral development.
Cheating in academia has a host of effects on students, on teachers, on individual institutions, and on the educational system itself.
For instance, students who engage in neutralization to justify cheating, even once, are more likely to engage in cheating in the future, potentially putting them on a road to a life of dishonesty. Indeed, one study found that students who are dishonest in class are more likely to engage in fraud and theft on the job when they enter the workplace. Students are also negatively affected by academic dishonesty after graduation. A university Transcript/Degree is an important document in the labor market. Potential employers use a degree as a representation of a graduate's knowledge and ability. However, due to academic dishonesty, not all graduates with the same grades actually did the same work or have the same skills. Thus, when faced with the fact that they do not know which graduates are skilled and which are the "lemons", employers must pay all graduates based on the quality of the average graduate. Therefore, the more students who cheat, getting by without achieving the required skills or learning, the lower the quality of the average graduate of a school, and thus the less employers are willing to pay a new hire from that school. Because of this reason, all students, even those that do not cheat themselves, are negatively affected by academic misconduct.
Academic dishonesty also creates problems for teachers. In economic terms, cheating causes an underproduction of knowledge, where the professor's job is to produce knowledge. Moreover, a case of cheating often will cause emotional distress to faculty members, many considering it to be a personal fight against them or a violation of their trust. Dealing with academic misconduct is often one of the worst parts of a career in education, one survey claiming that 77% of academics agreed with the statement "dealing with a cheating student is one of the most onerous aspects of the job."
Academic misconduct can also have an effect on an institutions reputation, one of the most important assets of any school. An institution plagued by cheating scandals may become less attractive to potential donors and students and especially prospective employers. Alternately, institutions with low levels of academic dishonesty can use their reputation to attract students and employers.
Ultimately, academic dishonesty undermines the academic world. It interferes with the basic mission of education, the transfer of knowledge, by allowing students to get by without having to master the knowledge. Furthermore, academic dishonesty creates an atmosphere that is not conducive to the learning process, which affects honest students as well. When honest students see cheaters escape detection, it can discourage student morale, as they see the rewards for their work cheapened. Cheating also undermines academia when students steal ideas. Ideas are a professional author's "capital and identity", and if a person's ideas are stolen it retards the pursuit of knowledge.
CHAPTER – 4
4. ACADEMIC DISHONESTY TEACHER’S GUIDE (EXPLANATION FROM WIKIPEDIA, THE FREE ENCYCLOPEDIA)
4.1 Preventing Academic Dishonesty:
According to a survey between 40 to 70 percent of students have accepted either they have, directly or indirectly, been involved in cheating during their academic career. Researchers have begun to identify the factors that influence academic dishonesty. These include competition and pressures for good grades, instructional situations that are perceived as unfair or excessively demanding, faculty who are perceived as uncaring or indifferent to their own teaching or to their students' learning, lax attitudes on the part of faculty toward academic dishonesty, peer pressure to support a friend, and a diminishing sense of academic integrity and ethical values among students. Not all these factors are under an instructor's control, but there are specific steps you can take to prevent academic dishonesty:
- Inform students of academic standards for scholarship and conduct.
- Explain how cheating harms students and describe campus sanctions.
- Minimize the opportunities for cheating and plagiarism.
- Take visible actions to detect dishonesty so that students know you will not tolerate cheating. (Even if you don't actually carry out all the actions you say you will take, honest students will appreciate knowing that you care enough about academic integrity to take precautions.)
- If cheating occurs, respond swiftly with disciplinary measures and formal action.
4.2 General Strategies:
4.2.1Spend time at the beginning of the term discussing standards of academic scholarship and conduct. Cheating may mean different things for faculty and students. For example, students are often unclear about how much they can work with other students and under what circumstances. Describe for your students acceptable and unacceptable behavior, giving examples of plagiarism, impermissible collaboration, and other practices relevant to your class. Explain that cheating will not be tolerated, and discuss university policies, procedures, and penalties for academic violations. A unified brief handout may be prepared by the DD Academics, which should clearly define cheating and plagiarism. All departments should be asked to distribute to students and require students to sign a statement that they have read and understood the material. Here is an example of material that is distributed to students:
(1) Cheating is basically, means of getting unauthorized help on an assignment, quiz, or examination. You must not receive from any other student or give to any other student any information, answers, or help during an exam. (2) You must not use unauthorized sources for answers during an exam. You must not take notes or books to the exam when such aids are forbidden, and you must not refer to any book or notes while you are taking the exam unless the instructor indicates it is an "open book" exam. (3) You must not obtain exam questions illegally before an exam or tamper with an exam after it has been corrected.
Plagiarism means submitting work as your own that is someone else's. For example, copying material from a book or other source without acknowledging that the words or ideas are someone else's and not your own is plagiarism. If you copy an author's words exactly, treat the passage as a direct quotation and supply the appropriate citation. If you use someone else's ideas, even if you paraphrase the wording, appropriate credit should be given. You have committed plagiarism if you purchase a term paper or submit a paper as your own that you did not write.
4.2.2Make sure students know the criteria for evaluating their performance. Review students' work throughout the term so that they know you know their abilities and achievement levels.
4.2.3Develop a climate and group norms that support honesty. For example, you may wish to take a vote in class to conduct the exams under the honor system (without proctors/invigilators).
4.2.4Learn to recognize signs of stress in students. Make students aware of campus resources that they can turn to for help if their grades are low or if they feel under pressure. Familiarize yourself with the services of your campus's student learning center and counseling center, as well as tutoring provided by student honor societies (if existing).
4.2.5Ensure equal access to study materials. Establish a file in the library or department office of old homework assignments, exams, and papers. Or attach a sample of past exam questions to the syllabus.
4.2.6Make students feel as though they can succeed in your class without having to resort to dishonesty. Give more rather than fewer tests. Encourage students to come talk with you if they are having difficulties. Minimize the threat of exams and grades.
4.2.7If you suspect students of cheating or plagiarizing material, call him in your room,confront them directly. Give priority to this issue and deal with the problem immediately. Don't join the 20 percent of faculty members who tend to ignore evidence of cheating. Talk with a student about your suspicions and listen carefully to the student's response. Here is some specific advice
- If you have qualms or hesitations, talk with an experienced colleague or your department chair before you meet with the student.
- Consult your campus student conduct office for specific guidelines and due process procedures.
- When you meet with the student, objectively explain the problem as you see it.
- Describe why this is a problem in grading or evaluating the student's work.
- Avoid using the words cheating or plagiarism.
- Project an air of concern for the student as an individual, but communicate the seriousness of the situation.
- Listen to the student's explanation.
- If a student denies any wrongdoing, question him or her about specific aspects of, say, the paper by asking for definitions of terms, interpretations, or restatements.
- Be prepared for pleas, excuses, and tales of hardship and extenuating circumstances.
- Show some sympathy if a student is distraught or upset. Suggest a referral to the counseling center, if appropriate.
- Explain what will happen next to the student.
- Take whatever official action your institution prescribes for handling student academic dishonesty.
4.3.1Clarify the distinctions between plagiarism, paraphrasing, and direct citation. Provide students with instances of correct and incorrect ways to use others' ideas and words.
Consider the following source and three ways that a student might be tempted to make use of it:
Source: The joker in the European pack was Italy. For a time hopes were entertained of her as a force against Germany, but these disappeared under Mussolini. In 1935 Italy made a belated attempt to participate in the scramble for Africa by invading Ethiopia. It was clearly a breach of the covenant of the League of Nations for one of its members to attack another. France and Great Britain, as great powers, Mediterranean powers, and African colonial powers, were bound to take the lead against Italy at the league. But they did so feebly and half-heartedly because they did not want to alienate a possible ally against Germany. The result was the worst possible: the league failed to check aggression, Ethiopia lost her independence, and Italy was alienated after all.
Version A: Italy, one might say, was the joker in the European deck. When she invaded Ethiopia, it was clearly a breach of the covenant of the League of Nations; yet the efforts of England and France to take the lead against her were feeble and half-hearted. It appears that those great powers had no wish to alienate a possible ally against Hitler's rearmed Germany.
Comment: Clearly plagiarism. Though the facts cited are public knowledge, the stolen phrases aren't. Note that the writer's interweaving of his own words with the source's does not render him innocent of plagiarism.
Version B: Italy was the joker in the European deck. Under Mussolini in 1935, she made a belated attempt to participate in the scramble for Africa by invading Ethiopia. This violated the covenant of the League of Nations. But France and Britain, not wanting to alienate a possible ally against Germany, put up only feeble and half-hearted opposition to the Ethiopian adventure. The outcome, was "the worst possible: the league failed to check aggression, Ethiopia lost her independence, and Italy was alienated after all."
Comment: Still plagiarism. Some of author’s words are again being presented as the writer's.
Version C: Much has been written about German rearmament and militarism in the period 1933-1939. But Germany's dominance in Europe was by no means a foregone conclusion. The fact is that the balance of power might have been tipped against Hitler if one or two things had turned out differently. Take Italy's gravitation toward an alliance with Germany, for example. That alliance seemed so very far from inevitable that Britain and France actually muted their criticism of the Ethiopian invasion in the hope of remaining friends with Italy. They opposed the Italians in the League of Nations, because they did not want to alienate a possible ally against Germany." Suppose Italy, France, and Britain had retained a certain common interest. Would Hitler have been able to get away with his remarkable bluffing and bullying in the later thirties?
Comment: No plagiarism. The writer has been influenced by the public facts, but he hasn't tried to pass off conclusions as his own. The one clear borrowing is properly acknowledged.
4.3.2Watch out for electronic plagiarism. With the growth of electronic bulletin boards, information servers, and electronic mail, students can obtain papers from students at other universities or have on-line access to encyclopedias, Monarch notes, or other source material. While there is little you can do to prevent abuse, letting students know you are aware of the possibility may deter potential cheaters.
4.3.3Tell students that resubmitting their previous academic work as a new product for your course is inappropriate. Ask students to check with you if they have a paper or project they submitted for another course that may be appropriate for yours. Some faculty work with students who wish to use a recycled research paper by allowing students to use a different statistical method to analyze data already collected or by letting students use the conclusions of their previous papers as springboards for topics for new papers.
4.4 Paper Topics:
4.4.1Assign specific topics. Design topics that are likely to require new research, that stress thought and analysis more than recall of facts, and that are challenging but not overwhelming. Topics that are too difficult invite cheating, as do boring, trivial, and uninteresting topics.
4.4.2 Limit students' choices of broad paper topics.If given complete freedom, students may flounder and turn to commercially produced term papers or "file" papers as an easy out.
4.4.3Change the assignments for each offering of a course. Changing the topics or assignments prevents students from simply appropriating an essay from someone who has already taken your course.
4.5 Writing Demystified
4.5.1Give a short lecture on how to research and write a paper. Let students know what you expect of them and how they can proceed. Some campus libraries offer consultation services to students on developing research skills.
4.5.2Discuss in class the difficulties of writing. Help students understand that the anxieties or blocks they face are a normal part of the writing process. "If, in the classroom, you emphasize the stages of the composing process and the normal tribulations of every writer, your students may be less likely to conclude that cheating is the only feasible way of getting from an assigned topic to a finished paper".
4.5.3During the term schedule a variety of short in-class papers. In-class assignments help students develop their writing skills and help them to determine their abilities. Faculty members who assign only one paper a term have a hard time judging whether that assignment is the student's own work.
4.5.4Early in the course require students to come in to discuss their paper topics. Again, later in the course, ask them to share outlines and to discuss how they plan to organize and present their ideas and findings. This approach not only helps students write better papers but also allows you to see students' ideas develop.
4.6 Preparation and Submission of Papers:
4.6.1Require students to submit first drafts. Quick comments on first drafts can help students improve their writing skills.
4.6.2Request that final versions of papers be handed in with drafts. Ask for note cards and outlines as well. Also ask students to turn in the original version and one duplicate. Keep the copies for your files so that you can consult them to identify pirated or purloined papers the next time you teach the course.
4.6.3If possible, collect papers from students during class. This will only work if your course size is not too large. If papers are turned in at a department or faculty office, consider using locked mailboxes with slots for collection.
4.6.4Consult the catalogue descriptions of term paper firms. If you suspect a student has purchased a term paper, you may wish to review the catalogues of paper factories. Ask your campus office of student affairs for any catalogues on file.
4.7 Exam Questions:
4.7.1Change exam questions as often as is practical. Ask students and (graduate student instructors, if you have them) to submit prospective questions. With judicious editing, some will be appropriate for the exam and others could form the basis of an item pool.
4.7.2For multiple-choice exams, use alternate forms. Scramble the order of questions, and color code the different exams. Some researchers suggest rearranging both test questions and answers. Or collate the pages in different orders, if possible.
4.7.3 Create individualized tests for students, if appropriate.Using a computer, a faculty member in business creates customized assignments for students. In a tax accounting course, he varies the sales price and monthly payment amounts to generate unique problems for each student (using four sales prices and four monthly payment amounts yields 64 different problems; upping each of these variables to six results in 216 different problems). Using software with word-processing, spreadsheet, and mail-merge capabilities makes it possible to create unique problems and the solutions for each so that scoring can be readily handled.
4.7.4Keep exams, grade books, and rosters safe. Store all exam materials in locked cabinets, desks, or file drawers in your office. Make copies of computer grade files.
4.8 Test Administration:
4.8.1Make certain that you (or proctors/invigilators) are in the room at all times. During an exam arrange for proctoring or plan to monitor the test yourself, unless your class is run on an honor system. Periodically walk up and down the aisles to actively watch students. Students have developed ingenious ways of cheating during exams: using systems of hand and feet positions, tapping corners of the desk to represent responses to multiple-choice questions, surreptitiously opening books or trading papers, using tiny cassette recorders filled with information.
4.8.2Seat students randomly in alternate chairs. Have students place personal belongings on the floor rather than in empty seats. If needed, schedule an additional room.
4.8.3In large classes, check students' photo IDs. Check photo IDs displayed on desks against class lists to be certain that each student takes his or her own exam. If you do this, let students know in advance you will be checking IDs. Or seat students in pre-assigned groups. For example, students could sit by section so that graduate student instructors can determine whether all their students are in attendance and that "ringers" are not taking tests.
4.8.4In rooms with seat numbers, keep a seating chart. Hand out prerecorded seat numbers. In rooms without seat numbers, pick up the exams in the sequence of rows.
4.8.5Make certain that students have cleared the memories on their calculators. Before you distribute the exam or as students enter the room, check the calculators' memories to be sure they are erased. Also make sure that crib notes are not concealed in a calculator's cover.
4.8.6Supply scratch paper. Do not permit students to use their own paper or pages. One intrepid student reported writing answers on a paper flower and pinning it to her blouse.
4.8.7Take action if you observe "wandering eyes." If you notice "wandering eyes," go up to the offending student unobtrusively and ask that he or she move to another seat where it is less crowded. If the student seems reluctant, whisper in his or her ear that you would prefer that the student move. If you observe cheating, position yourself near the offenders to discourage them. Or make a general public announcement: "Please do your own work." If you have suspicions about students, allow them to complete the exam, but take notes on what you observe.
4.8.8Spend some time in the back of the room. Students who are thinking about cheating will have to turn around in their seats to see where you are.
4.8.9Do not allow students to rush chaotically at the end of the period. Require students to sign an attendance sheet when they turn in their exams, or collect exams from students. Count those present at the exam to make certain that the number of examinees matches the number of exams. This will prevent students' claims that their exam was lost or misplaced but that they took it.
4.9 Scoring and Returning of Exams:
4.9.1Clearly mark incorrect answers. Use an inked X or slash mark to indicate wrong answers or blank spaces.
4.9.2If you permit re-grading of exams, take precautions. Throughout the term photocopy the exams or quizzes of students who initially ask for re-grading. Or photocopy a sample of all exams before returning them to students. In Bahria University, only recounting is permitted as per laid down procedures.
4.10 Fraudulent Excuses:
4.10.1Distinguish between fraudulent, legitimate, and unacceptable excuses. A legitimate excuse is based on events beyond a student's control; a fraudulent excuse is one fabricated solely to avoid an academic responsibility. In one study, researchers found that over two-thirds of college students admitted to using at least one fraudulent excuse to postpone an exam, turn in a paper late or not at all, or miss class. An unacceptable excuse, such as forgetting when a paper was due, may be truthful but not a Justifiable reason for failure to do the assigned task.
4.10.2Clearly state your policies about accepting excuses. Let students know at the beginning of the term what you consider as acceptable and unacceptable excuses. Tell students that no excuse will be accepted without some type of proof of its validity. While it is clearly impossible to obtain evidence that all excuses are legitimate, just saying you will ask for documentation may discourage potential excuse makers. Better yet, try to structure your course so that students are not placed in situations where they might be tempted to come up with pseudo excuses.For example, student should not be allowed to miss a quiz without penalty.
4.10.3Recognize that the excuse "my grandmother died" is more likely to be valid than fraudulent. Research shows few significant distinctions between the content of fraudulent excuses and legitimate excuses. Don't become so cynical that you dismiss every family emergency as an invention.